Abraham Lincoln

Name Abraham Thomas Lincoln.

Born: 12 February 1809 in Kentucky (USA).

Father: Thomas Lincoln.

Mother: Nancy.

Marriage: With Mary Todd (in 1842). Died: 15 April 1865.

Early life:

Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky in a wooden house. His father’s name was Thomas Lincoln and his mother’s name was Nancy Lincoln. His descendants came from England and later settled in New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Virginia.

His great-grandfather was named Captain Abraham Lincoln, who emigrated from Virginia to Kentucky in 1780. Captain Lincoln was assassinated by an Indian hunter-gatherer in 1786.

In March 1830, Abraham moved with his family to Macon County. Abraham was 22 years old at this time, he came here and started working as a laborer. Abraham Lincoln was 6’4 feet tall and he was lean and tall, but he was much stronger than his body.

He used to do small jobs at this time, like watchman, shopkeeper, etc. But in the end, he opened a general store. All this went on for a few years.

Abraham Lincoln did not like to work hard since childhood, due to which his family and neighbors used to call him lazy. He used to spend most of his time covering books and writing poems.

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His early education was from nomadic teachers rather than any school, who taught Lincoln a lot in a short period of time. Now when he grew up, Lincoln had the idea of ​​fighting against orthodox practices. Lincoln hated the atrocities on slaves from the beginning and wanted to abolish slavery.

The country was experiencing slavery practices, whites owned large farms in the southern states, and they used to call black people from Africa to work in their farms and were kept as slaves. The people of the northern states were against this practice of slavery and wanted to end it.

The Constitution of America is based on the equality of man. So that there was no place for slavery in the country, in this difficult time, Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States in 1860.

He wanted to solve the problem of slavery. The people of the southern states were against the abolition of slavery. This may threaten the unity of the country. The southern state was preparing to build a new country but. Abraham Lincoln wanted all the states to unite.

Married life

The 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln, is known by most people as a hero for his kindness, struggle to rise from poverty to become President, and to get rid of slavery. Most people know about Lincoln even though he was born in harsh winter in a hut made of wooden rafters, walking for miles and borrowing books to read, and at night in a fireplace or a blacksmith shop Used to study in the light of a burning furnace. He worked from pig biting to woodcutting and working in the farms, being called the most honest lawyer of his city, arguing with Judge Douglas, and then becoming President of the US.

These are the things that people know about Abraham Lincoln. His poverty and early political failures (due to which he once retired from politics) are known as the most Painful and tragic events of his life.

Apart from all this, a big aspect of his life is such that people remain unfamiliar or know only those who have a special interest in Lincoln’s life. This is a side which some people consider to be the biggest tragedy of His life and also that if this tragedy had not happened, He would not have become the President of America.

He was married to Mary Todd in 1842 in ‘Spring Field’ town. William H. Hendron, his closest and his associate in advocacy for 20 years, wrote in Lincoln’s biography that the wedding day was the last day of happiness for Lincoln.

Talking about Mary Todd, he says that she was a high opinionated, arrogant, and dirty woman who knew the whole city to lose her temper. Mary’s sister, with whom she lived for many years, also said that Mary loved sparkle, power, and performance and she knew she was the most ambitious woman in the world.

Hendron says – This woman had great ambition and confidence, which is revealed by the fact that she had already said many years ago that she would marry the same person who would go on to become the President of America. People used to make fun of her on this matter, but she used to stick to it. She used to say this when nobody could even think in a dream of becoming the President of Lincoln struggling in advocacy.

After their marriage in October 1842, they stayed in Springfield for several days in the house of a woman named Catherine. Catherine told Hendron, referring to an incident, that Mary used to treat Lincoln like animals. Once at the breakfast table in the morning she became so angry that she hit a cup of hot tea on Lincoln’s mouth in front of everyone. According to Catherine, the shocking thing was that Lincoln did not get angry at this incident, he remained calm.

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Advocacy and study of Abraham Lincoln

Lincon Advocacy

In 1844, Abraham Lincoln was born on February 12, 1809, in Hardin County, Kentucky in a wooden house trained in advocacy with William Hernand and after some time he became a lawyer. They did not earn much money by advocating, but they got mental peace and satisfaction from their advocacy, there is no coast of money in place of mental peace. He was very honest in his work, his story is famous even today.

Lincoln did not charge more than his clients who were ‘poor like him’. Once one of his clients given him twenty-five dollars, Lincoln returned ten dollars, said that 15 dollar is enough. Usually, he used to advise his clients to settle the matter by persuading them outside the court so that the money of both the parties is not wasted in litigation.

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In return, they used to get very low fees. Once a pension agent sought 200 fees from a martyred widow from her total of 400 Pension. Lincoln not only pleaded for the woman for free but also arranged for the cost of staying at her hotel and a return ticket.

Political Life and as a leader

In 1834, Lincoln started his political profession and was elected to the Illinois state legislature as a member of the Whig Party.

 After becoming a lawyer In 1854 Lincoln again entered in politics. He stood in many elections. He was then associated with the Whig Party, but after some time that party came to an end.

Became a member of the new Republican in 1856. He proved to be a very capable leader of this new party. At this time, he stood in the election for the Vice President and received very few votes, due to which he lost in this election.

Abraham Lincoln faced many problems. He wanted to protect the unity of the country at any cost. On February 1, 1861, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas separated and a civil war ensued. As the war progressed, Lincoln promised himself and launched an abolitionist movement for the country, and he was successful on it and said declared, (“A Nation cannot exist half free and half slave.”). Finally declared hostage-free in 1863 and became a document of slave freedom in the state, but slaves in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and Arkansas did not obtain legal stakes.

Abraham Lincoln Death History

On April 14, 1865, at a Ford theater in the US capital, Washington DC, Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by noted actor and co-criminal John Wikes Booth in a cinema in the US capital of Washington DC when he was watching the drama “Our American Cousin”.

Interestingly, at the time Lincoln was shot, his personal security guard John Parker was not present with him.

John Wicks Booth, who shot Lincoln, was captured 10 days later from a farm in Virginia, where American soldiers killed him in an encounter.

In this way, an honest and most popular president of the country died.

Abraham Lincoln’s Quotes

“Folks are usually about as happy as they make their minds up to be.”

― Abraham Lincoln

“Whatever you are, be a good one.”

― Abraham Lincoln

“Do I not destroy my enemies when I make them my friends?”

― Abraham Lincoln

“America will never be destroyed from the outside. If we falter and lose our freedoms, it will be because we destroyed ourselves.”

― Abraham Lincoln

“My Best Friend is a person who will give me a book I have not read.”

― Abraham Lincoln

“Nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man’s character, give him power.”

― Abraham Lincoln

Mahatma Gandhi Biography

Mahatma Gandhi Biography

Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) was born in October 2, 1869, Porbandar, when India was known as British India (Part of British India). Mahatma Gandhi was known as the leader of India’s non-violent independence movement against British rule and in South Africa who fought for the civil rights of Indians.

Early Life and Schooling

Gandhi was the youngest child of his father’s fourth spouse. Gandhi’s father, Karamchand Gandhi, served as a Deewan (chief minister) in Porbandar and different states in western India.

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His deeply god believing mother was a loyal practitioner of Vaishnavism (worship of the Hindu god Vishnu), influenced by an ascetic of Jainism.

Although Mohandas time to time won prizes and scholarships at the native schools, his document was on the entire mediocre.  One of several reports rated him as “good at English, fair in Arithmetic and weak in Geography; conduct excellent, poor handwriting.”

In May 1883 when Gandhi became a 13-year-old young boy, Gandhi was married to Kasturba Makhanji, she was also a 13-year-old youngest girl, by means of the arrangement of their respective mother and father, as is customary in India.

Mohandas wanted to study medicine in childhood, But it was considered below his caste, his father Agreed him to study law instead. After his marriage Mohandas completed high school and tutored his spouse.

Gandhi was a shy During his teenage and unremarkable student who was so timid that he slept with the lights on at the same time as a teenager. At the age of 19, Mohandas left the house to study law in London on the Inner Temple, one of many metropolis’s four law faculties.

Earlier than leaving India, he assured his mother he would never try to eat meat. He was an even stricter vegetarian whereas away than he had been at the house.

when he was in boarding houses and vegetarian eating places of England, Gandhi met not solely meals faddists but some earnest people to whom he owed his introduction to the Bible and, most importantly the Bhagavadgita, which he read for the first time in English translated by Sir Edwin Arnold.

He became a lawyer in 1891 and left for Mumbai. Upon returning to India, he arranges a law practice in Mumbai, however, met with little success. then for a short interval served as a lawyer for the prince of Porbandar.

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Spent In South Africa

Gandhi faced challenges and opportunities that he could hardly have conceived. Ultimately he spent more than 20 years there, before returning to India solely briefly in 1896–97. The youngest two of his 4 children have been born there.

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Emerging as a political and social worker

Gandhi was shortly exposed to the racial discrimination practiced in South Africa. In a Durban courtroom, he was ordered by the European judge to remove his turban; but he refused and left the courtroom.

Some days later, whereas touring to Pretoria, he was suddenly thrown out of a first-class railway compartment and left shivering and brooding at the railway station in Pietermaritzburg.

He determined then to work to finish racial prejudice. He decided to remain in South Africa for just one 12 months, however, this new reason stayed him within the country till 1914. Soon after the rail incident he called his first meeting of Indians in Pretoria and attacked racial discrimination

Henceforth he wouldn’t compromise injustice as a part of the natural or unnatural system in South Africa; he decided to defend his dignity as an Indian and as a person.

In 1896 Gandhi returned to India to take his spouse and his children to Africa and to tell his countrymen of the poor behavior with Indians there. Information about his speeches filtered back to Africa, and when Gandhi returned, an offended mob threw stones and tried to lynch (to homicide by mob action and with unlawful trial) him.

In 1907 Gandhi suggests all Indians in South Africa to defy a law requiring registration and fingerprinting of all Indians. For this exercise, he was imprisoned for 2 months however released when he agreed to voluntary registration.

Throughout Gandhi’s prison, he learned about the American essayist Henry David Thoreau. (1817–1862) essay “Civil Disobedience,” which left a deep impression on him. He was additionally influenced by his correspondence with Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy

Two of his last legal achievements in Africa were a law declaring Indian rather than only Christian marriages valid, and the end of a tax on former indentured (certain to work and unable to leave for a particular time period) Indian labor. Gandhi regarded his work in South Africa as accomplished.

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Came Back in India

Gandhi determined to leave South Africa in the summertime of 1914. He and his household first went to London, the place they remained for some months.

Lastly, they Shifted  England in December, arriving in Mumbai (India) in early January 1915. joined the Indian National Congress with Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his mentor.

Gandhi became to know by the name “Mahatmaji,” a title has given him by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore (1861–1941). “Mahatma” which means “great soul” Gandhi knew how to reach the masses and emphasized their resistance and spiritual development.

Gandhi’s first main achievement was in 1918 when he led the Champaran and Kheda agitations of Bihar and Gujarat. He additionally led the Non-Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, Swaraj, and Quit-India (Bharat Chodo) movement against the British rule.

Mahatma Gandhi: Satyagraha

Gandhi is known for his general methodology of non-violent action as Satyagraha. Gandhiji’s Satyagraha influenced famous personalities like Nelson Mandela and Martin Luther in their struggle for freedom, equality, and social justice. Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha was primarily based on true ideas and non-violence.

Final part

A new chapter in Indo-British relations opened with the victory of the Labour Party in Britain in 1945. During the subsequent two years, triangular negotiations between Congress leaders, the Muslim League led by Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and the British Government culminating in the Mountbatten Plan of June 3, 1947, and the formation of the 2 new dominions of India and Pakistan in mid-August 1947.

In March 1947, the last Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten (1900–1979), arrived in India by June 1948 with instructions to take Britain out of India. By this time, the Congress Party had agreed to separate, as the only option appeared as a continuation of British rule.

It was one of the greatest disappointments of Gandhi’s life that Indian Independence was realized without Indian unity.

As the final constitutional arrangements were being negotiated, the outbreak of communal riots between Hindus and Muslims improperly created a climate in which Gandhi’s appeals to motive and justice, tolerance, and belief had little likelihood.

Gandhi had critics in his own nation and indeed in his own party too. The liberal leaders protested that he was going too quickly; the young radicals complained that he was not going quick sufficient.

left-wing politicians alleged that he was not serious about evicting the British or liquidating such vested Indian interests as princes and landlords; the leaders of the untouchables doubted his good faith as a social reformer and Muslim leaders accused him of partiality to his personal group.

Gandhi, despairing as a result of his nation was not responding to his plea for peace and brotherhood, he refused to take part in the independence celebrations on August 15, 1947.

On September 1, 1947, after an offended Hindu mob broke into the house the place he was staying in Calcutta, Gandhi Started to fast, “to end if and when sanity comes back to Calcutta.

“Each Hindu and Muslim leaders promised that there would be no more killings, and Gandhi ended his Fast.

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948. he was shot and killed by Nathuram Godse. Godse was a Hindu nationalist and a member of the Hindu Mahasabha. He accused Gandhi of favoring Pakistan and was against the doctrine of non-violence.

Gandhi’s famous quotes

If we could change ourselves, the tendencies in the world would also change. As a man changes his own nature, so does the attitude of the world change towards him. We need not wait to see what others do.

Non-violence is the greatest force at the disposal of mankind. It is mightier than the mightiest weapon of destruction devised by the ingenuity of man.

You must be the change you wish to see in the world.

A man is but a product of his thoughts. What he thinks he becomes.

Happiness is when what you think, what you say, and what you do are in harmony.

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